Oil & Gas - Midstream applications
Midstream relates to the transportation, storage and partial processing of crude oil and gas from the wellheads to the refining plants. What is pumped out of the well is not pure and often contains a mixture of oil, gas, water and often sand which firstly need to be separated off from each other before being shipped or piped to a storage facility.
This can be done in a variety of ways depending on the type of oil or gas that the well is pumping and can often take up to 4 processes before the commodity is separated out ready for piping or shipping. These processes require energy and this energy is often created from the commodity itself by the utilisation of the gas.
Once the separating has been completed, the commodity can then be moved to storage. In the case of an offshore rig this separating is often done on shore away from the rig then pumped to the storage depots. In the case of the FPSO vessels it is all done on board and the oil transferred to tankers at sea for delivery to storage depots.
This is also the point when all metering needs to take place to calculate invoices and taxes today. The amount of oil produced is shapely measures, also the density, viscosity, pressure, temperature, and in the case of gas, the amount of water vapour is also measured.
Oil is often pumped directly to the oil refinery which is where the down stream operation starts but often needs to go through a series of pumps to get the required pressure.
With the Kopex-Ex range of products, ABB can offer a range of products and services to meet the demands of midstream oil and gas markets. The Kopex-Ex range of conduit & fittings are manufactured to meet ATEX and IECEx standards. They are designed to be robust and to meet
the vigors of the environment whether it is on oil tankers or in the refining production process.
- Salt water corrosion (Tankers)
- Extreme ambient temperature
- Protection level
- Consequence of down time
- Approval level required (Ex e, Ex d, etc.)
- Approval specification required ATEX, IECEx
- Where product will be positioned, e.g. Zone 1 or Zone 2