Oil, Gas and Chemicals glossary


800xA - ABB System 800 Extended Automation Platform

ABB - Asea Brown Boveri

ABS - Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene

AC - Alternating Current

ACB - Air Circuit Breaker

ACL - Access Control List

Acreage - Land leased for oil and gas exploration and/or land for which ConocoPhillips owns the mineral rights.

AFC - Approved for Construction

AGA - American Gas Association

AI - Analogue Input

AIP - Aspect Integrator Platform

AIS - Automatic Identification System

ALARP - As Low as Reasonably Practical

AM - Asset Management

American Petroleum Institute (API) - The American Petroleum Institute is the oil and gas industry’s trade organization. API’s research and engineering work provides a basis for establishing operating and safety standard issues and specifications for the manufacturing of oil field equipment and furnishes sta tistical and other infor mation to related agenc ies. Vi sit API at

ANSI - American National Standards Institute

Anticline - A convex-upward formation of rock layers, which may form a trap for hydrocarbons.

AO - Analogue Output

AO - Asset Optimisation

API - Application Program Interface

API - American Petroleum Institute

Aquifer - An underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, silt or clay) from which groundwater can be extracted using a water well.

ARMOR - ABB Remote Monitoring and Operations Room

AS - Aspect Server

ASM - Abnormal Situation Management

ATEX - ATmospheres EXplosibles (Explosive Atmospheres) Standard

ATIS/TS - Automatic Terminal Information Service

ATM - Asynchronous Transfer Mode

AVL - Automation Vendor List


Barrel of oil equivalent (BOE) - A measure used to aggregate oil and gas resources or production, with one BOE being approximately equal to 6,000 cubic feet of natural gas.

Basin - A large, natural depression on the Earth’s surface in which sediments, generally brought by water, accumulate.

BBL - One stock tank barrel, of 42 U.S. gallons liquid volume, used in reference to crude oil, bitumen, condensate or natural gas liquids.

BCF - One billion cubic feet of natural gas.

BER - Bit Error Rate

Bitumen - A highly viscous form of crude oil (greater than 10,000 centipoise) resembling cold molasses (at room temperature). Bitumen must be heated or combined with lighter hydrocarbons for it to be produced. Contains sulfur, metals and other nonhydrocarbons in its natural form.

Bl - Barrel (of Oil) (1Bl = 42 Gallons = 159 Litres)

BOED - Barrels of oil equivalent per day.

BOM - Bill Of Materials

Borehole - A hole in the earth made by a drilling rig.

BPA - Bisphenol A

BPCS - Basic Process Control System

Bpd - Barrel per day (1Bpd = approx. 50 tons/tonnes per year)

British thermal unit (BTU) - The heat required to raise the temperature of a one-pound mass of water by one degree Fahrenheit.

BS - British Standard

BTU - British Thermal Unit (1BTU = 0.293Wh = 1,055kj)

BTX - Benzene, toluene and xylenes


C&E - Cause & Effect

CA - Competent Authority

CAD - Computer Aided Design

CAD - Chemical Agents Directive

Cal - Calorie (1 Cal = 4,187 Joules)

CAP - Critical Alarm Panel

CAPEX - CAPital EXpenditure

Carbon capture and storage (CCS) - Process by which carbon dioxide emissions are captured and removed from the atmosphere and then stored, normally via injection into a secure underground geological formation.

Carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e) - The quantity that describes, for a given mixture and amount of greenhouse gas, the amount of CO2 that would have the same global warming potential (GWP) when measured over a specified timescale (generally 100 years).

Carbon intensity - The quantity of greenhouse gas emissions associated with producing an intermediate or final product. For the oil and gas industry, carbon intensity is commonly expressed in units of Tonnes CO2e per product volume (e.g. Tonnes CO2e/bbl or Tonnes CO2e/MCF).

Carbon sequestration - The fixation of atmospheric carbon dioxide in a carbon sink through biological or physical processes.

Carbon sink - A reservoir that absorbs or takes up released carbon from another part of the carbon cycle. The four sinks, which are regions of the Earth within which carbon behaves in a systematic manner, are the atmosphere, terrestrial biosphere (usually including freshwater systems) , oceans and sediments ( includ ing fossil fuels) .

Casing - Thick walled steel pipe placed in wells to isolate formation fluids (such as fresh water) and to prevent borehole collapse.

CASS - Conformity Assessment of Safety Systems

CC - Copper Cable

CCR - Central Control Room

CCTV - Closed Circuit Television

CD - Compact Disk

CDAS - Control and Data Acquisition System

CDE - Control Diagram Editor

CDU - Crude Oil Distillation Unit

CEN - European Committee of Standardisation

CENELEC - European Committee of Electromechanical Standardisation

cFDS - common Functional Design Specification

CIF - Common Intermediate Format

CMD - Command

CMMS - Computer Maintenance Management System

CMS - Condition Monitoring System

CNG - Compressed Natural Gas

CO - Control Output

Coal bed methane (CBM) - Natural gas extracted from coal beds.

COMAH - Control Of Major Accident Hazards

Completion - The process of making a well ready to produce natural gas or oil. Completion involves installing permanent equipment, such as a wellhead, and often includes hydraulic fracturing.

Compound annual growth rate (CAGR) - The average year-over-year growth rate of a metric over a specific period of time.

Condensate - Mixture of hydrocarbons which are in a gaseous state under reservoir conditions and, when produced, become a liquid as the temperature and pressure is reduced.

Conventional resources - Discrete accumulations of hydrocarbons contained in rocks with relatively high matrix permeability, which normally have relatively high recovery factors.

CPF - Central processing facility

CPNI - Centre for the Protection of National Infrastructure

CPU - Central Processing Unit

CSA - Canadian Standards Administration

CSMA - Carrier Sense Multiple Access (Network)

CSMA/CD(NETWORK) - Carrier Sense Multiple Access / Collision Detection Network

CSP - Collector Separator Platform

CSS - Combined Safety System

CT - Current Transformer

CWDM - Coarse Wave Division Multiplexing


DC - Domain Controller

DC - Direct Current

DCC - Document Control Centre

DCN - Data Collector Node

DCS - Distributed Control System

DD - Device Description (Fieldbus)

DDL - Device Description Language (Fieldbus)

DDS - Detailed Design Specification

DEA - Diethanolamine

DEGBE - Diethylene glycol butyl ether

DEGBEA - Diethylene glycol butyl ether acetate

DETA- Diethylenetriamine

Developed acreage - The number of acres that are allocated or assignable to productive wells or wells capable of production.

Developed reserves - Reserves that can be expected to be recovered through existing wells with existing equipment and operating methods or in which the cost of the required equipment is relatively minor compared to the cost of a new well and, if extraction is by means other than a well, thro ugh insta lled equipment and in frastructur e oper atio nal at the time of the reserves estimate.

Development well - A well drilled within the proved area of an oil or gas reservoir to the depth of a stratigraphic horizon known to be productive.

DFDS - Detailed Functional Design Specification

DFI - Detector Flame Infra-red

DFO - Detector Flame Optical

DFU - Detector Flame Ultra-violet

DGA - Detector Gas Acoustic

DGI - Detector Gas Infra-red

DGL - Detector Gas Line of Sight

DGPS - Differential Global Positioning System

DHC - Detector Heat Compensated

DHE - Detector Heat Electronic

DI - Digital Input

DIP - Dust Ignition Proof

Directional drilling - The application of special tools and techniques to drill a wellbore at a predetermined angle. Horizontal drilling is a form of directional drilling where the wellbore is ultimately drilled at +/- 90 degrees to the vertical direction.

DO - Digital Output

DPGEE - Dipropylene glycol ethyl ether.

DPGME - Dipropylene glycol methyl ether.

Drilling rig - The machine used to drill a wellbore.

Dry gas - Dry gas is almost pure methane and occurs in the absence of liquid hydrocarbons or by processing natural gas to remove liquid hydrocarbons and impurities.

Dry hole - A well incapable of economically producing saleable hydrocarbons in sufficient quantities to justify commercial exploitation.

DSA - Detector Smoke Aspirating

DSEAR - Dangerous Substance and Explosive Atmospheres Regulations

DSO - Detector Smoke Optical

DSOD - Detector Smoke Optical Duct

DTM - Dynamic Temperature Monitoring (Instrumentation)

DTM - Device Type Manager

DTMF - Dual Tone, Multi-Frequency (Telecoms)

DVD - Digital Versatile Disk

DVD RW - Re writable Digital Versatile Disc

DWDM - Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing

DYNPOS - DYNamic POSitioning (FPSO related)


E&I - Electrical & Instrumentation

E&P - Exploration and Production.

Economically producible - A resource that generates revenue that exceeds, or is reasonably expected to exceed, the costs of the operation.

ECS - Electrical Control System

ECU - Equipment Under Control

EDMS - Electronic Document Management System

EDSA - Electrical Distribution System Analysis

EDTA - Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid

EEMUA - Engineering Equipment & material Users Association

EG - Ethylene glycol

EGBE - Ethylene glycol butyl ether

EGBEA - Ethylene glycol butyl ether acetate

EHSR - Essential Health and Safety Requirements

ELCB - Earth Leakage Circuit Breaker

eLER - electrical Local Equipment Room

EMC - Electromagnetic Compatibility

EMF - ElectroMagnetic Field

EMI - Electromagnetic Immunity

EN - European Norm (Standard)

Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) - One or more of a variety of processes that seek to improve recovery of hydrocarbon from a reservoir after the primary production phase.

Environmental assessment - A study that can be required to assess the potential direct, indirect and cumulative environmental impacts of a project.

EO - Ethylene oxide

EOR - Enhanced Oil Recovery

EOW - Extended Operator Workplace

EOW - Engineer Order Wire (Telecoms)

EPA - Propylene glycol ethyl ether acetate

EPC - Engineering Procurement Construction

EPCC - Engineering Procurement Construction Contractor EPCI

EPCI - Engineering Procurement Construction & Installation

EPCM - Engineering Procurement & Construction Management

EPD - Explosive Protection Documentation

EPIRB - Emergency Position-Indicating Radio Beacon

EPMA - Engineering Procurement Management Assist

EPS - Equipment and Protective Systems

EPS - Expanded polystyrene

ERP - Enterprise Resource Planning

ESD - Emergency Shutdown

ESP - Electrical Submerged Pump

Estimated ultimate recovery (EUR) - The sum of reserves remaining as of a given date and cumulative production as of that date.

ETBE - Ethyl-tertiary-butyl-ether

ETP - Engineering Technical Practices

EUC - Equipment Under Control

EV - Emergency Valve

EW/OS - Engineering Workstation, includes Operator HMI Functionality

Exploratory well - A well drilled to find a new field or to find a new reservoir in a field previously found to be productive of oil or gas in another reservoir.


F&G - Fire & Gas

Farm-in - The acquisition of part or all of an oil, natural gas or mineral interest from a third party.

Farm-out - The assignment of part or all of an oil, natural gas or mineral interest to a third party.

FAT - Factory Acceptance Test

FC - Fail Closed

FCC - Fluid catalytic cracking

FCE - Final Control Element

FDA - Field Device Agent (Fieldbus)

FDS - Functional Design Specification

FDT - Field Device Tool

FEED - Front End Engineering and Design

FF - Foundation Fieldbus

FGS - Fire and Gas System

FGS - Field gathering station

Field - An area consisting of a single hydrocarbon reservoir or multiple geologically related reservoirs all grouped on or related to the same individual geological structure or stratigraphic condition.

FISCO - Fieldbus Intrinsically Safe Concept

Floating production, storage and offloading (FPSO) - Provides alternative to pipeline to store oil production and load vessels for movement to markets.

FM - Factory Mutual approvals standard

FM - Frequency Modulation

FMEA - Failure Mode and Effects Analyses

FMRC - Factory Mutual Research Corporation

FMS - Fieldbus Message Specification layer (Telecoms)

FMS - Flexible Manufacturing System

FNICO - Fieldbus NonIncedive COncept

FO - Fibre Optic

Formation - A rock layer which has distinct characteristics (e.g. rock type, geologic age).

FOTS - Fibre Optic Transmission System

FPSO - Floating Production Storage and Offloading

FRP - Fibre Reinforced Plastic Rod

FSA - Functional Safety Assessment

FSM - Functional Safety Management

FSMS - Functional Safety Management System

F-T - Fischer-Tropsch process

FTA - Fault Tree Analysis

FTP - File Transfer Protocol


GA - General Arrangement

GB - Giga Byte

GBS - Gravity Based Structure

GE - Glycol ether

Global-warming potential (GWP) - The relative measure of how much heat a greenhouse gas traps in the atmosphere. It compares the amount of heat trapped by a certain mass of the gas in question to the amount of heat trapped by a similar mass of carbon dioxide. GWP is calculated over a specific time inter val, comm only 100 years. GWP i s expressed as a mult ipl e of that for carbon dioxide (whose GWP is standardized to 1).

GMDSS - Global Maritime Distress Safety System

GOOSE - Generic Object Oriented Substation Event

GOR - Gas Oil ratio

GOSP - Gas Oil Separation Plant

GOST - GOsudarstvennyy Standart – Russian Standard

GPS - Global Positioning System

Greenhouse gas - Atmospheric gases that are transparent to solar (short-wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus preventing long-wave radiant energy from leaving Earth's atmosphere. The net effect of these gases is a trapping of absorbed radiation and a tendency to warm the planet's su rface. The greenh ouse g ases mo st relevant to the oil and gas industry are carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide.

GRP - Glass reinforced plastics

GSD - GerateStammDaten – Device database file “Device Datasheet” (Fieldbus)

GTL - Gas To Liquids

GTM - Gas Treatment Module

GTP - Gas Treatment Plant

GUI - Graphic User Interface


HART - Highway Addressable Remote Transducer (Protocol) HAZID

HAZID - Hazard identification study

HAZOP - Hazard and Operability Analysis

HAZOP - Hazard and operability study

HDPE - High-density polyethylene

HDS - Hydrodesulfurization (unit)

Heavy oil - Crude oil with an API gravity less than 20°. Heavy oil generally does not flow easily due to its elevated viscosity.

HFC - Hydrofluorocarbons

HFT - High Fidelity Transfer

HI - High Integrity

HIPPS - High Integrity Pressure (or Pipeline) Protection System

Horizontal drilling - A drilling technique whereby a well is progressively turned from vertical to horizontal so as to allow for greater exposure to an oil or natural gas reservoir. Horizontal laterals can be more than a mile long. In general, longer exposure lengths allow for more oil and na tural gas to be recovere d from a well and often can re duce the number of wells required to develop a field, thereby minimizing surface disturbance. Horizontal drilling technology has been extensively used since the 1980s and is appropriate for many, but not all, developments.

HP - High Pressure

HP - High pressure HPU Hydraulic power unit (topside utility for subsea)

HPU - Hydraulic Power Unit

HSE - High Speed Ethernet

HSE - Health and Safety Executive

HSSD - High Sensitivity Smoke Detection (System)

HV - High Voltage

HVAC - Heating Ventilation & Air Conditioning

Hydraulic fracturing - Hydraulic fracturing (also referred to as frac’ing or fracking) is an essential completion technique in use since the 1940s that facilitates production of oil and natural gas trapped in low-permeability reservoir rocks. The process involves pumping fluid at high pressure into the tar get formati on, th ereby creat ing sm all fra ctures in the rock that enable hydrocarbons to flow to the wellbore. View our hydraulic fracturing overview fact sheet for more details:

Hydraulic fracturing fluids - Mixture of water and proppant along with minor amounts of chemical additives used to hydraulically fracture low permeability formations. Water and sand typically comprise up to 99.5 percent of the mixture. View our hydraulic fracturing fluid fact sheet for more details: www.powe rinc ooperation. com/EN /Documents/ COP_Hy d%20 Fra cturing%20Fluids.pdf.

Hydrocarbons - An organic compound containing only carbon and hydrogen and often occurring in nature as petroleum, natural gas, coal and bitumens or in refined products such as gasoline and jet fuel.


I/O - Input / Output

IAC - Inter Application Communication

ICSS - Integrated Control and Safety System

ICT - Information Control Technology

IEC - International Electrotechnical Commission

IED - Intelligent Electronic Device

IEEE - Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers

IET - Institution of Engineering and Technology

IFC - International Fieldbus Consortium

iLER - instrument Local Equipment Room

IMC - Institute of Measurement and Control

Improved oil recovery (IOR) - Term used to describe methods employed to improve the flow of hydrocarbons from the reservoir to the wellbore or to recover more oil or natural gas. Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) would be one form of IOR.

IMS - Information Management System

Infill wells - Wells drilled into the same reservoir as known producing wells so that oil or natural gas does not have to travel as far through the formation, thereby helping to improve or accelerate recovery.

In-situ recovery - Techniques used to extract hydrocarbons from deposits of extra-heavy crude oil, bitumen or oil shale without removing the soil and other overburden materials.

IO - Integrated Operations

IOP - Integrated Optics Package

IOR - Improved Oil Recovery

IP - Internet Protocol

IPA - Isopropyl acetate

IPL - Instrument Protection Layer

IPxx - Degree of Ingress Protection to class xx of IEC60529

IR - Infrared

IS - Intrinsically Safe

ISA - International Society of Automation

ISDN - Integrated Services Digital Network

ISO - International Standards Organization

ISP - Interoperable Systems Project

ITP - Inspection Test Plan


Jack-up rig - An offshore rig with retractable steel legs that are placed on the ocean floor to raise the rig above the water line.

JB - Junction Box

JIP - Joint Industry Program

JIS - Japanese Standards Association

Joint operating agreement (JOA) - An agreement governing the rights and obligations of co-owners in a field or undeveloped acreage, which defines, amongst other things, how costs and revenues are to be shared among the parties and who is the operator.


K.O. Drum - Knock Out Drum

K-Mass Flow - Coriolis type sass flow meter

KPI - Key Performance Indicator

kWh - kiloWatthour (1kWh = 3.6MJ =860kCal = 3,413 BTU)


LAN - Local Area Network

LAS - Link Active Scheduler (Fieldbus)

LCD - Liquid Cristal Display

LDPE - Low-density polyethylene

LDT - Line Dispatcher Terminal

LEAC - List of Equipment for Area Classification

Lease - A legal document executed between a mineral owner and a company or individual that conveys the right to explore for and develop hydrocarbons and/or other products for a specified period of time over a given area.

LED - Light Emitting Diode

LER - Local Equipment Room

Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) - LCA is an analytical methodology used to comprehensively quantify and interpret the environmental flows to and from the environment (including air emissions, water effluents, solid waste and the consumption/ depletion of energy and other resources) over the life cycle of a produc t or process. L CAs sh ould be per formed in adh erence to the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 14040 series of standards.

Liquefied natural gas (LNG) - Natural gas that has been converted to a liquid by refrigerating it to -260°F. Liquefying natural gas reduces the fuel’s volume by 600 times, enabling it to be shipped economically from distant producing areas to markets.

LLDPE - Linear low-density polyethylene

LNG - Liquified Natural Gas

LOPA - Layers Of Protection Analysis

LOS - Line of Sight

LP - Low pressure LPG Liquid petroleum gas

LPG - Liquified Petroleum Gas

LQ - Living Quarters

LSDS - Large Screen Display System

LSTK - Lump Sum TurnKey

LTSA - Labelled Transition System Analyser

LV - Low Voltage

LVOC - Large volume organic chemicals


MAC - Manual Alarm Call Point

MAC - Main Automation Contractor

MAOP - Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure

MAPP - Major Accident Prevention Policy

MAU - Media Access Unit

MAV - Main Automation Vendor

MB - Mega Byte

MBBL - One thousand barrels of crude oil, bitumen, condensate or natural gas liquids.

MBD - One thousand barrels per day.

MBOE - One thousand barrels of oil equivalent.

MCC - Moter Control Center

MCCB - Moulded Case Circuit Breaker

MCF - One thousand standard cubic feet of natural gas. In the United States, standard conditions are defined as gas at 14.7 psia and 60oF.

MCR - Main Control Room

MDC - Monitored Digital Contractor

MDF - Main Distribution Frame

MDI - Monitored Digital Input

MDO - Monitored Digital Output

MEA - Monoethanolamine

MEAC - Main Electrical and Automation Contractor

MEC - Main Electrical Contractor

MEG - Monoethylene glycol

MEK - Methyl ethyl ketone

MES - Manufacturing Execution System

MEV - Main Electrical Vendor

MIC - Main Instrumentation Contractor

MIL - US Military Standard

MMA - Methyl methacrylate

MMBBL - One million barrels of crude oil, bitumen, condensate or natural gas liquids.

MMBOE - One million barrels of oil equivalent.

MMBTU - One million British thermal units.

MMCF - One million standard cubic feet of natural gas. In the United States, standard conditions are defined as gas at 14.7 psia and 60oF.

MMS - Manufacturing Message Specification

MMS - Multimedia Messaging Service

MMscf - Million Standard Cubic Feet (1MMscf = 23.8 TOE = Approx. 174 Barrels)

MOS - Maintenance Override Switch

MP - Propylene glycol methyl ether

MPA - Propylene glycol methyl ether acetate

MPEG - Movie Picture Expert Group

MPG / USP - Pharmaceutical grade monopropylene glycol

MPLS - Multiprotocol Layer Switching

MRP - Materials Requirement Planning

MS - Microsoft®

MSDS - Material Safety Data Sheet (international- SDS)

MTBE - Methyl-tert-butyl-ether

MTBF - Mean Time Between Failure

MTPA - Millions of tonnes per annum.

MTTR - Mean Time To Repair

MUX - Multiplexer

MV - Medium Voltage


NAO - Normal alpha olefins or n-olefins ( See alpha olefins)

NAS - Network Attached Storage

Natural gas - Naturally occurring hydrocarbon gases found in porous rock formations. Its principal component is usually methane. Nonhydrocarbon gases such as carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide can sometimes be present in natural gas. For more information, view our fact sheets at www. powerinco oper N/Page s/factsheet s.html .

Natural gas liquids (NGLs) - A general term for highly volatile liquid products separated from natural gas in a gas processing plant. NGLs include ethane, propane, butane and condensate.

NBR - Nitrile-butadiene rubber

NDE - Normally De-Energised

NE - Normally Energised

NEC - National Electronic Code

NEMA - National Electrical Manufacturers Association

Net acres - The percentage that a company owns in an acreage position with multiple owners. For example, a company that has a 50 percent interest in a lease covering 10,000 acres owns 5,000 net acres.

NFPA - National Fire Protection Association

NGL - Natural Gas Liquids

NIS - Non-Intrinsically Safe

NMEA - National Marine Electronics Association

NMS - Network Management System

NORSOK - NORsk SOkkels Konkuranseposisjon – Standards

NTL - Negative Temperature Coefficient (Thermistors)

NVR - Network Video Recorder

NYMEX - The New York Mercantile Exchange.


OD - Object Dictionary (Fieldbus)

OEM - Original Equipment Manufacturer

Oil sands - Geologic formation comprised predominantly of sand grains and bitumen, a highly viscous form of crude oil.

OIR - Online Insertion and Removal

OLE - Object Linking and Embedding

OLF - Norwegian Oil Industry Association

OPC - Object linking and embedding (OLE) for Process

Operator - The entity responsible for managing operations in a field or undeveloped acreage position.

OPEX - Operational Expenditure

OPPS - Over Pressure Protection System

OSI - Open Systems Integration / Interconnection

OWS - Operator WorkStation


P&ID - Piping and Instrument Diagram

PA / GA - Public Address / General Alarm

PABX - Private Automatic Branch Exchange

PBX - Private Branch Exchange

PC - Personal Computer

PCB - Printed Circuit Board

PCP - Progressive Cavity Pump

PCS - Process Control system

PDF - Portable Document Format

PDM - Positive Displacement Meter

PD-Meter - Positive displacement meter

PE - Programmable Electronics

PEMS - Predictive Emission Monitoring System

Permeability - The permeability of a rock is the measure of the resistance to the flow of fluid through the rock. High permeability means fluid passes through the rock easily.

PES - Programmable Electronics System

PES - Unsaturated polyester resins

PET - Polyethylene terephthalate

PFD - Probability of Failure on Demand

PFDavg - Probability of Failure on Demand average

PFEER - Prevention of Fire & Explosion & Emergency

PG - Propylene glycol

PGEE - Propylene glycol ethyl ether

PGEEA - Propylene glycol ethyl ether acetate

PGME - Propylene glycol methyl ether

PGMEA - Propylene glycol methyl ether acetate

PGP - Power Generation Plant

PHR - Process Hazard Review

PI - OSIsoft Process Integration

PID - Proportional Integral Derivate control algorithm

PID - Perimeter Intruder Detection (Telecoms)

PIMS - Production Information Management System

PISN - Private Integrated Services Network

Play - An area in which hydrocarbon accumulations or prospects with similar characteristics occur, such as the Lower Tertiary play in the deepwater Gulf of Mexico or the Marcellus play in the eastern United States.

PLC - Programmable Logic Controller

PM - Project Manager

PMMA - Polymethyl methacrylate

PMS - Power Management System

PNO - PROcess FieldBUS Nutzerorganisation – Standards organisation

PO - Propylene oxide

PoC - Pump off Controller (For Artificial Lift)

POM - Polyoxymethylene

Porosity - The measure of a rock’s ability to hold a fluid. Porosity is normally expressed as a percentage of the total rock which is taken up by pore space.

POSMOOR - POSition MOORing (FPSO related)

Probable reserves - Additional reserves that are less certain to be recovered than proved reserves but which, together with proved reserves, are as likely as not to be recovered.

Produced water - Water produced in connection with oil and natural gas exploration and development activities.

Production sharing contract (PSC) - An agreement between a host government and the owners (or co-owners) of a well or field regarding the percentage of production each party will receive after the parties have recovered a specified amount of capital and operational expenses.

Productive well - A well that is capable of producing hydrocarbons in sufficient quantities to justify commercial exploitation.

PROFIBUS DP - PROcess FIeldBUS Decentralised Periphery

PROFIBUS PA - PROcess FIeldBUS Process Automation

Proppant - Sand or man-made, sand-sized particles pumped into a formation during a hydraulic fracturing treatment to keep fractures open so that oil and natural gas can flow through the fractures to the wellbore.

Proved developed reserves - Proved reserves that can be expected to be recovered through existing wells with existing equipment and operating methods or in which the cost of the required equipment is relatively minor compared to the cost of a new well.

Proved reserves - Proved oil and gas reserves are those quantities of oil and gas which, by analysis of geoscience and engineering data, can be estimated with reasonable certainty to be economically producible – as defined by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission regulations and the ConocoPh illi ps Policy f or Res erves Estim ation, Acc oun ting and Reporting.

PRT - Platinum resistance Thermometers

PRV - Peak Reserve Voltage

PSD - Process ShutDown

PSI - Pounds per Square Inch (1psi = 6.9kPa = 0.069atm)

PSM - Process Safety Management

PSU - Power Supply Unit

PT - Potential Transformer

PTC - Positive Temperature Coefficient (Thermistors)

PTP - Point-To-Point

PTW - Permit To Work

PTZ - Pan Tilt Zoom

PUWER - Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations

PV - Process Value

PVC - Permanent Virtual Circuit (Telecoms)

PVC - Polyvinyl chloride


QA - Quality Assurance

QC - Quality Control

QoS - Quality of Service

QRA - Quantified Risk Analysis


RAID - Redundant Array of Independent Disks

RAM - Reliability, Availability and Maintainability

RAM - Random Access Memory

RAS - Remote Access Server

RCBO - Residual Circuit Breaker with Overload

RCCD - Residual Current Circuit Breaker

RCD - Residual Circuit Breaker

RDA - Refined Duplex Architecture

Reasonable certainty - A high degree of certainty. Much more likely to be achieved than not.

Recompletion - The process of entering an existing wellbore and performing work designed to establish production from a new zone.

Recordable cases - As related to health, safety and environment (HSE), recordable cases include occupational death, nonfatal occupational illness and those nonfatal occupational injuries which involve one or more of the following: loss of consciousness, restriction of work or motion, trans fer to an othe r job or me dical treatment ( other than fi rst aid).

Reserves - Estimated remaining quantities of oil and gas and related substances anticipated to be economically producible, as of a given date, by application of development projects to known accumulations. In addition, there must exist, or there must be a reasonable expectation th at there will exist, the legal right to p roduce or a r evenue interest in production, installed means of delivering oil and gas or related substances to market and all permits and financing required to implement the project.

Reservoir - A porous and permeable underground formation containing a natural accumulation of producible oil and/or gas that is confined by impermeable rock or water barriers and is individual and separate from other reservoirs.

Resources - Quantities of oil and gas estimated to exist in naturally occurring accumulations. A portion of the resources may be estimated to be recoverable, and another portion may be considered to be unrecoverable. Resources include both discovered and undiscovered accumulations.

Return on capital employed (ROCE) - ROCE is a measure of the profitability of a company’s capital employed in its business compared with that of its peers. ROCE is calculated as a ratio, with the numerator of net income plus after-tax interest expense and the denominator of average total equity plus total debt. The net income is adjust ed for nono perati onal or special items impacts.

RF - Radio Frequency

RFI - Radio Frequency Interference

RFID - Radio Frequency Identification

RNRP - Redundant Network Routing Protocol

ROADM - Reconfigurable Add-Drop Multiplexer

ROV - Remote Operated Vehicle (for SubSea workover)

ROV - Remote operated vehicle (for subsea workover)

RRF - Risk Reduction Factor

RTD - Resistance Thermometer Devices / Resistance Temperature Detectors

RTU - Remote Termination Unit


SAI - Serial Analogue Input

SAN - Storage Area Network

SAN - Styrene-acrylonitrile

SAO - Serial Analogue Output

SART - Search and Rescue Transponder

SAS - Safety and Automation System

SAT - Site Acceptance Test

SBR - Styrene-butadiene rubber

SCADA - Supervisory Control And Data Aquisition

SCE - Safety Critical Elements

Scf - Standard Cubic Feet (1Scf = 1000BTU = 252Kcal = 293Wh = 1,055MJ)

Scm - Standard Cubic Meter (1 Scm = 39MJ = 10.8kWh)

SDH - Synchronous Digital Hierarchy

SDI - Serial Digital Input

SDO - Serial Digital Output

SDRL - Supplier Data (or Document) Requirement List

SEC - Safety Execution Centre

SFF - Safe Failure Fraction

SFP - Small Form-factor Pluggable

Shale - A very fine-grained sedimentary rock that is formed by the consolidation of clay, mud or silt and that usually has a finely stratified or laminated structure. Certain shale formations, such as the Eagle Ford and the Barnett, contain large amounts of oil and natural gas.

SIF - Safety Instrumented Function

SIL - Safety Integrity Level as defined by standard IEC 61508

SIS - Safety Instrumented System

SLCC - Safety Lead Competency Centre

SLD - Single Line Diagram (Electrical)

SMART - Self Monitoring Analysis and Reporting Technology

SMS - Short Message Service

SMTP - Simple Mail Transfer Protocol

Social Life Cycle Analysis (S-LCA) - A methodology for assessing internalities and externalities of the production of goods and services based on social and socioeconomic indicators.

SOUP - Software Of Uncertain Pedigree

Sour gas - Sour gas is natural gas or any other gas containing significant amounts of hydrogen sulfide (H2S).

SoW - Scope of Work

SP - SetPoint

Spacing - The distance between wells producing from the same reservoir. Spacing is often expressed in terms of acres (e.g. 80-acre spacing) and is often established by regulatory agencies.

SPF - SmartPlant Foundation

SQL - Structured Query Language

SSR - Senior Site Representative

Steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) - A process used to recover bitumen that is too deep to mine. A pair of horizontal wells is drilled from a central well pad. In a plant nearby, steam generators heat water and transform it into steam. The steam then travels through above-ground pipelines to the wells. It e nters the gro und via the steam injection well a nd h eat s the bitumen to a temperature at which it can flow by gravity into the producing well. The resulting bitumen and condensed steam emulsion is then piped from the producing well to the plant, where it is separated and treated. The water is recycled for generating new steam.

SUO - Start Up Override

Sweet gas - Natural gas that contains little or no hydrogen sulfide.


TAED - Tetraacetylethylenediamine

TAME - Tertiary-amyl-methyl-ether

TATS - Trip and Alarm Testing Scheme

TB - TeraByte

TBA - Tertiary-butyl-alcohol

TCF - One trillion cubic feet of natural gas.

TCP/IP - Transport Control Protocol / Internet Protocol

TDI - Toluene di-isocyanate

TDM - Time Division Multiplexing

TEA - Triethanolamine

TEPA - Tetraethylenepentamine

TER - Telecommunication Equipment Room

TETRA - Terrestrial Trunked Radio

Tight gas - Natural gas produced from relatively impermeable rock. Getting tight gas out usually requires enhanced technology applications like hydraulic fracturing. The term is generally used for reservoirs other than shale.

TIP - Tie-In Platform

TLP - Tension Leg Platform

TMR - Triple Modular Redundant

TMS - Telecom Maintenance System

TOE - Tons Oil Equivalent (1 TOE = 1000Kg = 1 Ton (metric) Oil TÜV

Total Recordable Rate (TRR) - The total recordable rate is a measure of the rate of recordable cases, normalized per 100 workers per year. The factor is derived by multiplying the number of recordable injuries in a calendar year by 200,000 (100 employees working 2,000 hours per year) and dividing this value by the total man hours actually wo rked i n th e y ear.

Total Shareholder Return (TSR) - Represents share price appreciation and dividends returned to shareholders over a period. It is calculated as follows: [(stock price at the end of the period) – (stock price at the start of the period) + (dividends paid during the calculation period) ÷ (stock price at th e start o f th e period)].

TÜV - Technische Überwachungs-Verein - a German based international standards authority

TÜVFS - TÜV Functional Safety Expert

TÜVFSEng - TÜV Functional Safety Engineer


UCP - Unit Control Panel

UDP - User Datagram Protocol

UHF - Ultra High Frequency

UL - Underwriters Laboratories

UMS - Unmanned Machinery Space class (Marine = E0)

Unconventional reservoirs - Reservoirs with permeability so low (generally less than 0.1 millidarcy) that horizontal hydraulically fractured stimulated wells or other advanced completion techniques must be utilized to extract hydrocarbons at commercial rates. Shale reservoirs such as the Eagle Ford and Barn ett, as well as tight reservoirs like the Bak ken and Three Forks, both are examples of unconventional reservoirs.

Undeveloped acreage - Acreage on which wells have not been drilled or completed to a point that would permit the production of commercial quantities of oil and gas regardless of whether or not the acreage contains proved reserves.

Unit - The joining of interests in a reservoir or field to provide for development and operations without regard to separate property interests. Also, the area covered by a unitization agreement.

uPES, UPR, USPE - Unsaturated polyester resins

UPS - Uninterruptible Power Supply

URF - Umbilicals, Risers and Flowlines

URS - User Requirement Specification

UV - Ultraviolet


VAC - Voltage Alternating Current

VAM - Vinyl acetate monomer

VCB - Vacuum Circuit Breaker

VCD - Video Console Display

VCM - Vinyl chloride monomer

VDC - Voltage Direct Current

VDR - Vendor Document Requirements

VDU - Vacuum distillation unit

VFC - Volt Free Contact

VFD - Virtual Field Device

VGA - Video Graphics Array

VHF - Very High Frequency

VHF-AM - Very High Frequency – Amplitude Modulation

VHF-FM - Very High Frequency – Frequency Modulation

VLAN - Virtual Local Area Network

VOC - Volatile organic compound

VOIP - Voice Over IP

VPLS - Virtual Private LAN Service

VSAT - Very Small Aperture Terminal

VSD - Variable Speed Drive

VT - Voltage Transformer

VTS - Vessel Traffic Services


WAN - Wide Area Network

Waterflood - An improved oil recovery technique that involves injecting water into a producing reservoir to enhance movement of oil to producing wells.

WAVES - Wireless Audio Visual Emergency System

WDM - Wavelength Division Multiplexing

Wellbore - The hole drilled by a drilling rig to explore for or develop oil and/or natural gas. Also referred to as a well or borehole.

Wet gas - Produced gas that contains natural gas liquids.

WHP - Wellhead Platform

WiFi - Wireless Fidelity

WMS - Well Monitoring System

Working interest - The right granted to the lessee of a property to explore for, produce and own oil, gas or other minerals. The working interest owners bear the exploration, development and operating costs.


XFMR - Transformer

XML - eXtensible Markup Language

XPS - Extruded polystyrene


YTD - Year-to-date.

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