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Oil and Gas Handbook

Appendix

A1 Units

Some common units used in the oil and gas industry are listed here as a representative selection of US and metric units, since both are used in different parts of the oil industry. The non-standard factors differ slightly between different sources.

API American Petroleum Institute crude grade API = (141.5 / Specific gravity ) – 131.5
Spec gravity = 141.5 / (API + 131.5) kg/l
Bl Barrel (of oil) 1 Bl = 42 Gallons
1 Bl = 159 liters
1 Bl equiv. to 5487 scf = 147 scm gas
Bpd Barrel per day 1 Bpd ≈ 50 tons/tons per year
BTU British thermal unit 1 BTU = 0.293 Wh = 1,055 kJ
Cal Calorie 1 Cal = 4,187 J (Joules)
MMscf Million standard cubic feet 1 MMscf = 23.8 TOE ≈ 174 barrels
psi Pounds per square inch 1 psi = 6.9 kPa = 0.069 atm
Scf Standard cubic feet (of gas) defined by energy, not a normalized volume 1 scf = 1000 BTU = 252 kcal = 293 Wh = 1,055 MJ ≈ 0.0268 scm
Scm Standard cubic meter (of gas, also Ncm) Defined by energy content 1 Scm = 39 MJ = 10.8 kWh
1 Scm ≈ 37.33 Scf (not a volume conv.)
1 Scm ≈ 1.122 kg
TOE Tons oil equivalent
Range 6.6 - 8 barrels at API range 8 - 52
1 TOE = 1000 kg = 1 Ton (metric) oil
1 TOE = 1 Tone oil (US)
1 TOE ≈ 7.33 Barrels (at 33 API)
1 TOE ≈ 42.9 GJ = 11,9 MWh
1 TOE ≈ 40.6 MMBTU
1 TOE ≈ 1.51 ton of coal
1 TOE ≈ 0.79 ton LNG
1 TOE ≈ 1,125 Scm = 42,000 Scf
kWh Kilowatt hour = 1000 joules * 3600 S 1 kWh = 3.6 MJ = 860 kcal = 3,413 BTU
Product specific gravity
Product Liters Per Ton (metric)
LPG 1835
Jet A-1 1254
Gasoline premium/super 1353
Gasoline regular 1418
Kerosene 1273
Gas oil 1177
Diesel fuel 1159
Fuel oil 80 CST 1065
Fuel oil 180 CST 1050
Fuel oil 230 CST 1047
Fuel oil 280 CST 1044
Bitumen 979
API grades
API Grade Specific Gravity (kg/m3) Barrels per Ton At 60°F
10 1000 6.29
18 934 6.73
25 904 6.98
30 876 7.19
33 860 7.33
36 845 7.46
39 830 7.60
42 816 7.73
50 780 8.06
CO2 Emissions from burning of coal and hydrocarbons
Product Average Carbon No CO2 kg per kg CO2 kg Per kWh Other unit
Methane 1 2.75 0.178 1.92 kg CO2 / scm
Gasoline 8 3.09 0.241 2.28 kg CO2 / liter
Diesel 12 3.11 0.249 2.68 kg CO2 / liter
Fuel oil 25 3.12 0.268 3.97 kg CO2 / liter
Coal 1 3.67 0.325

A2 Glossary of Terms and Acronyms

If you can't find what you're looking for, you can also try the ABB oil, gas and chemicals glossary.

ABS
Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene
AC
Alternating current
AGA
American Gas Association
AO
Asset optimization
API
American Petroleum Institute
BPA
Bisphenol A
BTX
Benzene, toluene and xylenes
CAPEX
Capital Expenses (Invested capital)
CCR
Central control room
CDU
Crude Oil Distillation Unit
CMMS
Computerized maintenance management system
CMS
Condition monitoring systems
CNG
Compressed natural gas
CPF
Central processing facility
CSP
Collector and separation platform
DC
Direct current
DEA
Diethanolamine
DEGBE
Diethylene glycol butyl ether
DEGBEA
Diethylene glycol butyl ether acetate
DETA
Diethylenetriamine
DPGEE
Dipropylene glycol ethyl ether.
DPGME
Dipropylene glycol methyl ether.
DYNPOS
Dynamic positioning (of rigs and ships)
E&P
Exploration and production
EDTA
Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid
EG
Ethylene glycol
EGBE
Ethylene glycol butyl ether
EGBEA
Ethylene glycol butyl ether acetate
EO
Ethylene oxide
EOR
Enhanced oil recovery (new technology, cf IOR)
EPA
Propylene glycol ethyl ether acetate
EPS
Expanded polystyrene
ESD
Emergency shutdown system
ESP
Electric submerged pump
ETBE
Ethyl-tertiary-butyl-ether
F&G
Fire & gas system
FCC
Fluid catalytic cracking
FGS
Field gathering station
FPSO
Floating production storage and offloading
F–T
Fischer–Tropsch process
GB(S)
Gravity base structure
GE
Glycol ether
GOR
Gas oil ratio from the well
GOSP
Gas oil separation plant
GRP
Glass reinforced plastics
GTL
Gas to liquids
GTP
Gas treatment platform
HAZID
Hazard identification study
HAZOP
Hazard and operability study
HDPE
High-density polyethylene
HFC
Hydrofluorocarbons
HDS
Hydrodesulfurization (unit)
HIPPS
High integrity pressure (or pipeline) protection system
HP
High pressure
HPU
Hydraulic power unit (topside utility for subsea)
HVAC
Heat ventilation and air conditioning
IMS
Information management system
IO
Integrated operations
IOR
Improved oil recovery (using proven technology)
IPA
Isopropyl acetate
IR
Infrared
ISO
International Standards Organization
K-Mass Flow
Coriolis type sass flow meter
LDPE
Low-density polyethylene
LLDPE
Linear low-density polyethylene
LNG
Liquid natural gas (e.g., methane)
LP
Low pressure
LPG
Liquid petroleum gas
LPG
Liquefied petroleum gas (e.g., propane)
LVOC
Large volume organic chemicals
MCC
Motor control center
MEA
Monoethanolamine
MEG
Monoethylene glycol
MEK
Methyl ethyl ketone
MMA
Methyl methacrylate
MP
Propylene glycol methyl ether
MPA
Propylene glycol methyl ether acetate
MPG / USP
Pharmaceutical grade monopropylene glycol
MSDS
Material Safety Data Sheet (international: SDS)
MTBE
Methyl-tert-butyl-ether
MTBF
Mean time between failure
NAO
Normal alpha olefins or n-olefins (See alpha olefins)
NBR
Nitrile-butadiene rubber
NGL
Natural gas liquids
NGL
Natural gas liquids, condensates (see also, LPG)
OPEX
Operational expenses
PCP
Progressive cavity pump
PD-Meter
Positive displacement meter
PES
Unsaturated polyester resins
PET
Polyethylene terephthalate
PFD
Probability of failure on demand
PG
Propylene glycol
PGEE
Propylene glycol ethyl ether
PGEEA
Propylene glycol ethyl ether acetate
PGME
Propylene glycol methyl ether
PGMEA
Propylene glycol methyl ether acetate
PGP
Power generation platform
PID
Proportional integral derivate control algorithm
PIMS
Production information management system
PMMA
Polymethyl methacrylate
PO
Propylene oxide
PoC
Pump of controller (for artificial lift)
POM
Polyoxymethylene
POSMOOR
Position mooring for a floating facility
PSD
Process shutdown system
PVC
Polyvinyl chloride
ROV
Remote operated vehicle (for subsea workover)
RRF
Risk reduction factor
RTU
Remote terminal unit
SAN
Styrene-acrylonitrile
SAS
Safety and automation system
SBR
Styrene-butadiene rubber
SCADA
Supervisory control and data acquisition
SIF
Safety instrumented function
SIL
Safety integrity level (per IEC 61508)
SIS
Safety instrumented system
TAED
Tetraacetylethylenediamine
TAME
Tertiary-amyl-methyl-ether
TBA
Tertiary-butyl-alcohol
TDI
Toluene di-isocyanate
TEA
Triethanolamine
TEPA
Tetraethylenepentamine
TIP
Tie-in platform
TLP
Tension leg platform
UMS
Unmanned machinery space class (marine = E0)
uPES, UPR, USPE
Unsaturated polyester resins
URF
Umbilicals, risers and flowlines
UV
Ultraviolet
VAM
Vinyl acetate monomer
VCM
Vinyl chloride monomer
VDU
Vacuum distillation unit
VOC
Volatile organic compound
WHP
Well head platform
XPS
Extruded polystyrene
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